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Ifo Prussian Economic History Database (iPEHD)

Raw Data

Before using the data contained in the iPEHD database, it is necessary for the user to understand the structure in which the data are presented. Therefore, please make sure to read the merging data section carefully before accessing the raw data. Apart from describing the data structure, that section presents a procedure to combine data from different census years.

iPEHD consists of county-level information gathered from different censuses. The data are currently presented in 76 separate data files, organized by content area, specific topic, and census year. Each data file in iPEHD contains a unique county (Kreis) identifier, the county name, the abbreviated district (Regierungsbezirk) name (rb), and a set of variables of census data.

iPEHD stores its data in comma-separated values (csv) format, which is easily accessible from any statistical software. For example, to open the csv data files in Stata, just type:
> insheet using="xxxxxx.csv" <

To give an example of a data file, the following table shows a brief extract of a few variables for the first few counties (by alphabet) from the data file "ipehd_1819_indu_fac.csv", which contains data on the number of factories in a county in 1819. E.g., the variable "fac1819_brick" documents the total number of brick manufactories in a county in 1819, and the variable "mill1819_water" the total number of water mills.

Extract from an example data file

kreiskey1800
county
rb
fac1819_brick
fac1819_lime
fac1819_glass
mill1819_water
277
Achen
AAC
5
10
2
26
33
Adelnau
POS
11
6
0
26
254
Adenau
KOB
0
1
0
71
196
Ahaus
MUN
11
15
0
20
255
Ahrweiler
KOB
0
0
0
51
2
Allenstein
KON
5
0
1
31
219
Altena
ARN
3
13
0
41
257
Altenkirchen
KOB
1
0
0
41
10
Angerburg
GUM
4
26
0
5
53
Angermünde
POT
13
2
0
28
32
Anklam
STE
3
0
0
2
209
Arnsberg
ARN
12
4
0
26
67
Arnswalde
FRA
7
3
3
29
160
Aschersleben
MAG
8
5
0
57
55
(Nieder-)Barnim
POT
8
0
1
30
54
(Ober-)Barnim
POT
18
0
0
36
190
Beckum
MUN
8
3
0
22

Note: Extract from iPEHD data file “ipehd_1819_indu_fac.csv”.

The iPEHD data are categorized into the following eight content areas (also accessible through the sidebar in the upper right corner). A zip-file containing all iPEHD data files together can be accessed here:

Education

This area contains, among others, such data as the number of students, teachers, and schools by school type, literacy, and school finance.

Occupation

This area contains, among others, data on the labor force in agriculture, in factories, in manufacturing, in crafts, and in services.

Wages and Income Tax

This area contains data on daily wages of day laborers, on teacher income, and on income taxes.

Industry

This area contains data on a huge number of different factories, technologies, and transportation.

Agriculture

This area contains, among others, such data as livestock, crop yields, soil composition, and the distribution of land.

Population

This area contains data on the population by age, by gender, and by marital status, on birth and deaths, and on population with disabilities.

Religion

This area contains denomination-specific data on population, literacy, education, occupation, and number of churches.

Miscellaneous

This area contains data on the surface area, buildings, municipalities, and residential areas for each county.

Apart from these eight content areas, the

Merger File

provides information on merger variables necessary to combine data from different census years; see the merging data section for details.


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