Securing a basic level of protection against adverse circumstances is the main goal of social security systems. To achieve this goal, countries have established a variety of policies to offer protection from various risks. DICE includes information on protection in case of invalidity and employment injuries. It also features a section dedicated to poverty and inequality measures.
- 1. Poverty and Income Distribution 7
- 2. Guaranteeing Sufficient Resources 8
- 3. Social Protection: Expenditure and Funding 3
- 4. Invalidity 4
- 5. Employment Injuries and Occupational Diseases 4
Although policies and instruments in support of families may seem wide-ranging, their main goal, regardless of the country in question, can be summarised as creating favourable framework conditions for families through financial support, facilitating a work-family balance, and providing access to childcare. Public support for families is designed as an essential tool to counter the adverse consequences of demographic changes for labour markets and social security systems in developed countries. Thus, policy instruments aim to increase fertility and female labour market participation. The type of support that is available for families varies greatly across countries. Key instruments include, for example, child-related leave entitlements, childcare services and direct or indirect subsidies for families (such as childcare benefits, tax benefits) or flexible working measures for working parents.
- 1. Childcare 25
- 2. Work-Family-Balance 16
- 3. Monetary Assistance to Families 11
- 4. Financing Family Policies 4
- 5. Family Statistics 8
Good health is a precondition not only for social well-being, but also for economic development. Institutions aimed at achieving a healthy population vary greatly between countries. Large differences exist, for instance, in health care financing, conditions for entitlement to benefits, and pharmaceutical pricing policies. This section offers information on health system institutions like the organisational structure of the health care system, benefit schemes, and pharmaceutical pricing policies, and also data on health system outcomes like health expenditure and the health status of the population.
- 1. Organisational Structure 22
- 2. Financing of Health Care 14
- 3. Health Expenditures 3
- 4. Benefits 11
- 5. Resources 24
- 6. Pharmaceuticals 11
- 7. Health Outcomes 8
Pensions are a major form of income transfers in all developed countries. Pension systems differ starkly as to what extent pension benefits depend on past earnings. In Bismarckian systems, pension benefits are related to past earnings. In Beveridgean systems, such a link is much weaker. Against a background of aging populations, dealing with pension liabilities is a major challenge. This DICE field provides an overview of pension rules, financing and spending, and how these have changed and are forecast to change.