Securing a basic level of protection against adverse economic circumstances is the main goal of social security systems. To achieve this goal, countries have established a variety of policies to offer protection from various risks. DICE covers employment injuries, invalidity and poverty, and also features a section dedicated to social protection expenditure.
- Employment Injuries 9
- Guaranteeing Sufficient Resources 17
- Invalidity 8
- Poverty, Income Distribution 13
- Social Protection: Expenditure, Funding 9
The adverse consequences of demographic changes for labour markets and social security systems in developed countries have induced a strong increase in public support for families. In addition to basic family statistics, DICE covers child care institutions and monetary assistance to families, as well as the financing side of family policies.
- Child Care 17
- Family Statistics 22
- Financing Family Policies 6
- Monetary Assistance to Families 24
- Work-Family-Balance 32
Good health is a precondition not only for social well-being, but also for economic development. Institutions to achieve a healthy population vary greatly between countries. Large differences exist, for instance, in healthcare financing, the role of the private sector, and pharmaceutical pricing policies. DICE’s health field not only provides data on these and other health system institutions, but also includes data on health system outcomes like health expenditure, life-expectancy, and obesity rates.
- Expenditures 19
- Health Care Systems 50
- Health Outcomes 16
- Pharmaceuticals 12
- Resources: Hospitals, Physicians 25
- Sick Leave, Lost Working Days 9
- Waiting Lists 10
Pensions are a major form of income transfers in all developed countries. Pension systems differ starkly as to what extent pension benefits depend on past earnings. In Bismarckian systems, pension benefits are related to past earnings. In Beveridgean systems, such a link is much weaker. Against a background of aging populations, dealing with pension liabilities is a major challenge. This DICE field provides an overview of pension rules, financing and spending, and how these have changed and are forecast to change.