Securing a basic level of protection against adverse economic circumstances is the main goal of social security systems. To achieve this goal, countries have established a variety of policies to offer protection from various risks. DICE covers employment injuries, invalidity and poverty, and also features a section dedicated to social protection expenditure.
- Employment Injuries 9
- Guaranteeing Sufficient Resources 13
- Invalidity 7
- Poverty, Income Distribution 10
- Social Protection: Expenditure, Funding 5
The adverse consequences of demographic changes for labour markets and social security systems in developed countries have induced a strong increase in public support for families. In addition to basic family statistics, DICE covers child care institutions and monetary assistance to families, as well as the financing side of family policies.
- Child Care 16
- Family Statistics 19
- Financing Family Policies 6
- Monetary Assistance to Families 23
- Work-Family-Balance 23
Good health is a precondition not only for social well-being, but also for economic development. Institutions aimed at achieving a healthy population vary greatly between countries. Large differences exist, for instance, in health care financing, conditions for entitlement to benefits, and pharmaceutical pricing policies. This section offers information on health system institutions like the organisational structure of the health care system, benefit schemes, and pharmaceutical pricing policies, and also data on health system outcomes like health expenditure and the health status of the population.
- 1. Organisational Structure 18
- 2. Financing of Health Care 15
- 3. Health Expenditures 9
- 4. Benefits 10
- 5. Resources 24
- 6. Pharmaceuticals 11
- 7. Health Outcomes 11
Pensions are a major form of income transfers in all developed countries. Pension systems differ starkly as to what extent pension benefits depend on past earnings. In Bismarckian systems, pension benefits are related to past earnings. In Beveridgean systems, such a link is much weaker. Against a background of aging populations, dealing with pension liabilities is a major challenge. This DICE field provides an overview of pension rules, financing and spending, and how these have changed and are forecast to change.