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Database for Institutional Comparisons in Europe (DICE)

The Database for Institutional Comparisons in Europe – DICE – is one of Ifo’s service products and can be accessed free-of-charge online. The database allows users to search for cross-country comparisons of systematic information on institutions, regulatory systems, legal requirements and the mechanisms of their application. Although DICE is not a statistical database, it also contains data on the outputs (economic effects) of institutions and regulations where relevant.

Most recent entries to the DICE Database

  1. DICE Database (2015), Earnings dispersion: Differences in earnings between females and males by level of education, 2004 - 2012 | Details | Download

  2. DICE Database (2015), Hourly compensation costs for production workers in manufacturing, in US-Dollars, 1975 - 2012 | Details | Download

  3. DICE Database (2015), Average annual wages in the total economy, 1990 - 2013 | Details | Download

  4. DICE Database (2015), Development of wage levels depending on inflation and tax, 2006 - 2014 | Details | Download

Latest CESifo DICE Report Database Articles

  1. DICE Database (2015), Provision of childcare facilities in the European Union – An analysis of member states´ progress towards meeting the Barcelona targets (CESifo DICE Report) | Details | Download

  2. DICE Database (2015), Early childhood education and care: Public expenditure, private costs and enrolment rates (CESifo DICE Report) | Details | Download

  3. DICE Database (2015), Part-time work and family building in OECD countries (CESifo DICE Report) | Details | Download

  4. DICE Database (2015), Inheritance Taxation in Europe (CESifo DICE Report) | Details | Download


DICE covers a broad range of institutional themes. To navigate, please click on the relevant field on the left-hand side and click through the folders for further topics.

Visual Storytelling

Visual Storytelling allows you to analyse DICE information using interactive maps and graphs:

  • See how indicators alter over time (play function)
  • Use scatter or radar plots to compare different indicators and connections
  • Select individual countries to compare performance
  • Select additional information layers in all visualisations. 

About DICE

The institutional framework of an economy and its implied incentive structure are central to any analysis of a nation’s welfare. At a time of rapid globalisation when people, businesses, capital and goods are becoming increasingly mobile internationally, countries are compelled to compete on the basis of their institutions. No country can afford not to compare its institutions with those of its neighbours, and all countries must aim to comply with international benchmarks and best practices. International institutional data that allow a country to assess its own situation and to prepare reforms are consequently in great demand.

DICE Formats

The information is presented in tables (text or data), charts, and reports. In most cases, all EU countries are covered as well as some major OECD countries. Users can choose between current comparisons, archived contents from previous years and time series that show developments over time.

  • DICE tables cover a wide range of topics and offer more detailed and in-depth information. They present quantitative indicators in the form of time series and qualitative information in descriptive form on regulations and institutions.
  • DICE Visual Storytelling allows through maps and diagrams an interactive and individual graphical analysis of connections and developments.
  • DICE reports highlight topical economic developments with brief texts built around graphical illustrations and tables. They are regularly published in the quarterly CESifo DICE Report.

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