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Ifo Prussian Economic History Database (iPEHD)


The codebooks provide additional information for each variable contained in iPEHD. There is one codebook for each year, so that you will find explanations for each variable in the codebook for the corresponding year. A summary codebook that combines all years is also provided; this summary codebook allows a content search of the whole iPEHD.

The codebooks list the variable name (“variable name”), the name of the data file where it can be found (“ipehd datasets”), an English label (“label”), and the original label in German language (“original label”). The German language label is similar to the table headings found in the original sources. The English label leads with the year and is a shortened (direct) translation of the German label; in cases where a translation is not feasible, the original German term was adopted. On top of each set of variables, the codebooks also indicate the source of this set of variables (“source”).

In any case, it is always recommendable to access the original sources for detailed information. They often give helpful insights regarding the exact attributes of the variables. You can also find additional explanations by reading the publications that first used the specific iPEHD data.

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