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6. Demographics and the Pension System

A higher life expectancy and lower fertility rates have led to population ageing in developed countries, which implies a shrinking of the working-age population. The old-age dependency ratio, which measures the number of elderly people as a share of those of working age, has increased in recent decades. It is projected to increase further in the decades ahead, which poses a big challenge to pension systems. Hence, in order to maintain the financial sustainability of pension systems, most developed countries have recently agreed to reforms and have increased the pensionable age. There have also been changes with regard to the labour force participation rate, as well as the employment-population ratio of older employees (55 to 64 years), which rose significantly in most industrialised countries.


  • At-risk-of-poverty rate of older people and old age income poverty, 1995 - 2013
    Table | 01.11.2014 | Details | Download | Visual Story
  • Exit from labour market, life expectancy at 65, statutory retirement age, 2005-2060 (projection)
    Table | 01.10.2014 | Details | Download | Visual Story
  • Fertility rate, life expectancy and old-age dependency, 1960 - 2080 (projection)
    Table | 01.11.2014 | Details | Download | Visual Story
  • Labour market participation rates by age group, 2010 - 2060 (projection)
    Table | 01.11.2014 | Details | Download
  • Life Expectancy at Normal Pension Age, by Gender, 1958 - 2050
    Table | 01.01.2013 | Details | Download
  • Old-age Poverty in OECD Countries and the Issue of Gender Pension Gaps
    Report | 11.08.2015 | Details | Download
  • SHARE, the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (CESifo DICE Report)
    Report | 01.08.2010 | Details | Download
  • Sustainability factors in pension systems and links to life expectancy, 2012
    Table | 01.10.2014 | Details | Download

Visual Story on exit from labour market

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