4. Knowledge Creation and Innovation Performance
The Innovation Union Scoreboard, published by the European Commission, categorises countries according to their innovation performance. Innovation leaders are defined as countries whose innovation performance is above the EU average, while innovation followers are countries with an innovation performance close to the EU average. The innovation performance of moderate innovators is defined as lying below the EU average, whereas that of modest innovators is defined as lying considerably below the EU average. There are several dimensions on which this categorisation is based; one example is the number of international patent applications, which differs significantly from country to country.